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场地污染修复案例

发布时间:2011-09-10 09:12:02
 

案例3.1:某氯碱化工企业遗留污染场地修复技术选择

Case 3.1 Remediation technology selection for the polluted site abandoned by a chlor-alkali chemical enterprise

化工厂的主要污染物质是六氯乙烷、五氯乙烷、六氯丁二烯和六氯苯,土壤中上述污染物的浓度非常高,有些达到1%至95%,其中六氯乙烷接近相应的产品的纯度,特别是这一部分含有较高浓度的持久性有机污染物六氯苯,不利于与其它土壤混合处理,建议将这一部分单独开挖出来并运出场外。另外,根据国家危险固体废物名录,这些物质有可能属于危险废物(HW45/261-085-45)。首先,在当地政府环保部门的监督下,选择有条件的工厂对可以利用的物质,例如六氯乙烷,尽量进行回收利用,对于不能回收利用的部分,再另外进行处理。对于不能回收利用的部分可采用以下三种处置方式:

The main pollutants from this chemical plant is perchloroethane, pentachloroethane, hexachlorobutadiene and HCB, and such pollutants are present in the soil with high densities, some as high as 1% - 95%, of which the perchloroethane is near the purity of the corresponding product, and especially this part of the soil contains comparatively high-density persistent organic pollutant HCB, which makes it suitable to be disposed of together with other soils. Therefore it is suggest that this part of soil should be separately dug out and transported outside of the site. In addition, according to the State list of the dangerous solid wastes, some of these substances may be dangerous waste (HW45/261-085-45). First, under the supervision of the local governmental environmental protection department, select some plants meeting conditions to  to recycle as much recyclable substances (say perchloroethane) as possible and those that can not be recycled should be disposed of otherwise. For those not recyclable, there are four disposal methods:

 

方式一:采用玻璃化技术路线将土壤中的有机物摧毁,将土壤玻璃化。玻璃化的土壤类似坚硬的花岗岩,可以用于填埋。可以根据条件采用地下玻璃化操作或地上容器内玻璃化操作。

Method 1: Take the vitrification technology route and destroy the organic substances in the soil and get and soil vitrified. The vitrified soil, as hard as granite, can be used for landfill. According to the conditions, the operation of underground vitrification or operation in the container on the surface may be chosen.

方式二 2:将污染土壤送到高温焚烧炉中进行焚烧处理,将含氯有机物焚毁。焚烧炉可以是专门的危险固体废物高温焚烧炉,也可以是经过适当改造的水泥窑焚烧炉。

Method : Put the polluted soil to the high-temperature incinerator for incineration disposal of the organic substances containing chlorine. The incinerator may be either a special-purpose high-temperature incinerator for dangerous solid wastes or properly converted cement-kiln incinerator.

方式三:采用高温热脱附技术处理这部分土壤。在处理之前,先要将土壤进行预处理,使得土壤的含水率、土壤最大颗粒直径、pH值、粘土含量等适宜于之后的处理。通过间接将土壤加热,将土壤中的污染物转移到气相中,通过对排出气体的收集和过滤,产生含很高浓度污染物的滤饼,对于该滤饼可以通过焚烧处理。热脱附处理后的清洁土壤可以用于土地平整。

Method 3: Adopt the high-temperature thermal desorption technology to dispose of this part of soil. Before the disposal, make preparatory treatment of the soil to ensure the water content, maximum particle diameter, pH value, clay content of the soil are suitable for the following disposal. Heat the soil indirectly to get the pollutants transferred to the gas phase, and the collect and filter the discharged gases to form filter masses of high-density of pollutants which can be disposed by incineration. The clean soil after thermal desorption disposal can be used for earth levelling.

 

方式四:选择适当的工业固体废物填埋场,针对该填埋场的位置和污染物控制设施等进行环境风险评估,当环境风险可以接受时,将该部分土壤在填埋场作填埋处置。当环境风险不可接受时,可以在该填埋场单独开辟临时储存单元,对这些土壤单独临时储存,等时机成熟时再行处理。

Method 4: Select the right landfill site for solid wastes; evaluate the environmental risk in light of the site's location and pollutant control facilities; when the environmental risk is acceptable, this part of soil should be disposed of on the landfill site. When the environmental risk is unacceptable, storage unit may be established temporarily in this landfill site to store this soil temporarily which is to be disposed of when the occasion is ripe.

综上所述,化工厂场地的可能修复技术为玻璃化、焚烧、热脱附和填埋。考虑不同技术的技术要求,结合重庆市的经济发展水平,对上述技术进行筛选矩阵的打分如附表一所示。从上表可以得出,最优(得分最低)的技术是场外焚烧技术和植物修复技术,但植物修复不适合高浓度有机污染物修复,且植物修复周期过长,因场地外焚烧技术是天原场地的最佳修复技术,与拟采用的修复技术一致。

To conclude, the possible remediation technologies for the chemical plant include vitrification, incineration, thermal desorption and landfill treatment. Given the different requirements of different technologies and in light of the economic and social development of Chongqing Municipality, the screening matrix rating of the above mentioned technologies are shown in Schedule I. It can be seen from Schedule I that the optimal (the lowest rated) technologies are off-site incineration technology and plant remediation technology, but the latter is not suitable for the remediation of high-density organic pollutants and its cycle is too long. Therefore, the off-site incineration is the best remediation technology for Tianyuan site, which tallies with the proposed remediation technology.

 

案例3.2:某含氯苯类化合物的染料厂遗留场地修复技术选择

Case 3.2 Remediation technology selection for an abandoned site of a dye plant containing chlorobenzene compounds

该染料厂以生产分散染料、还原染料和有机颜料为主,有机颜料主要为酞菁系列颜料和染料。在生产过程中可能造成土壤污染的主要污染物包括重金属、PCBs、1,2,4-三氯苯、六氯苯。考虑到工程复杂性和客土的来源以及污染物在空间的迁移可能造成的次生污染问题,并且换土和客土的方法通常用于小面积的污染土壤,所以排除换土法。另外由于要处理的项目紧迫,化学和生物修复方法周期长,所以本项目排除该方法。该厂区的主要污染物确定为PCBs、1,2,4-三氯苯、六氯苯,为达到经济上和技术上的可行性,同时照顾到土壤处理的紧迫性,选择两种市场上比较常见的两种方法,即焚烧法和固化法。焚烧法虽然费用较高,但是对于短期处理措施,效率高,去除污染物比较彻底,该方法可用于有机污染的土壤。固化法是将污染土壤同凝固剂或者粘合剂混合,固化为颗粒或块状,对于重金属污染的土壤效果好。

This plant mainly produced disperse dye, recycle dye and organic pigment which comprises mostly phthalocyanine pigment and dye. The main pollutants that may cause soil pollution in the production process mainly include heavy metals, PCBs, 1,2,3 trichlorobenzene and HCB. In consideration of the the complexity of the project and the source of the foreign soil and the spatial transfer of pollutants which may cause secondary pollution, and that the method of soil replacement and covering with foreign soil are usually used for small areas of polluted soil, and therefore soil replacement is ruled out. In addition, given the urgency of the disposal project, the cycle of either the chemical or biological remediation method is too long and therefore ruled out. The main pollutants determined in the plant compound are PCBs, 1, 2, 4 trichlorobenzene and HCB. In order to reach the economic and technological practicality and take into consideration the urgency of the soil disposal, select two methods commonly seen in the market: incineration method and solidification method. Though the incineration method incurs more expenses, it is more efficient as a short-term disposal method which removes pollutants more thoroughly, and therefore used for disposal of polluted organic soil. The solidification method is to mix the polluted soil with coagulant or adhesive to solidify it into particles or pieces and therefore efficient for the soil polluted by heavy metals.

综上所述,该染料厂的可能修复技术为生物修复、填埋、焚烧、MCD和热脱附等。考虑不同技术的要求,结合北京市的经济发展水平,对上述技术进行筛选矩阵的打分如附表二所示。从得分可以看出,较优(得分最低)的修复技术包括:生物修复、填埋、焚烧、MCD和热脱附,但考虑到氯苯类化合物的难生物降解性,植物、微生物和填埋技术均不能有效地使污染物得到去除,MCD技术虽可使氯苯类污染物得到破坏,但MCD技术的成熟性较差,缺乏可靠的运行参数。此外该场地不能提供场内焚烧需要的空间,而场外焚烧需要长距离的运输。综上所述,热脱附技术是符合北京染料厂场地的最佳技术,与拟采用的修复技术一致。

   To conclude, the possible remediation technologies for this dye plant are biological remediation, landfill treatment, incineration, MCD, thermal desorption and etc. In consideration of the requirements of different technologies and the economic development of Beijing, the rating of the such technologies by using the screening matrix is shown in Schedule 2. It can be seen from the rating that the better (lowest rated) remediation technologies include: biological remediation, landfill treatment, incineration, MCD and thermal desorption. However, in consideration of the difficult degradation of chlorobenzene compounds, neither the plant technology, or microorganism technology or landfill technology is efficient for removal of the pollutants. Though the MCD technology is able to destroy the chlorobenzene compound pollutants, it lacks maturity and reliable operational parameters. In addition, the site can provide the space for incineration and the off-site incineration involves long-distance transport. To sum up, the thermal desorption technology is the best for the site of Beijing Dye Plant and it tallies with the proposed remediation technology.

案例3.3:某多氯联苯(PCBs)污染场地修复技术选择

Case 3.3  Remediation technology selection for a PCBs polluted site

该封存点清运出的所有废物经过适当包装后,先运输到绍兴临时储存库进行临时储存,再分类运输到热脱附设施土壤堆放区和沈阳,做热脱附处置。设备清洗、个人防护用具清洗及现场工具清洗后的含PCBs的洗涤废液,采用简单方法初步沉降后,将符合污水排放标准的洗涤液直接排至城市下水道,不符合污水排放标准的洗涤废液将运至热脱附场地,作为热脱附装置补水或进装置废水处置系统。

All the wastes transported out of this sealing and storage spot, after due packing, is transported first to a temporary storage in Shaoxin to be temporarily stored and then classified and transported to the thermal desorption facility at the earth stack area and Shenyang for thermal desorption disposal. The washing, containing PCBs produced in cleaning the equipment, personal protective tools and the on-the-spot tools, precipitates at first by using simple methods, then, if meeting the standard for waste water discharge, it is directly discharge into the urban sewer; and, if not, it will be transported to the thermal desorption site for supplementary water for the thermal desorption device or the conveying device waste water disposal system.

 

PCB的可能修复技术为生物修复、热脱附、MCD和填埋等。考虑不同技术的要求,结合浙江省的经济发展水平,对上述技术进行筛选矩阵的打分如附表三所示。从上表可以得出,较优(得分最低)的修复技术包括:植物修复技术、微生物修复技术、填埋技术MCD技术和热脱附技术等,但考虑到PCB的难生物降解性,植物、微生物和填埋技术均不能有效地使PCB污染物得到去除,MCD技术虽可使PCB污染物得到破坏,但MCD技术的成熟性较差,缺乏可靠的运行参数。综上所述,热脱附技术是符合浙江PCB场地的最佳技术,与拟采用的修复技术一致。

The possible remediation technologies for PCB are biological remediation remediation, thermal desorption, MCD landfill treatment and etc. In consideration of the requirements of different technologies and the economic development of Zhejiang Province, the rating of the above mentioned technologies by using the screening matrix is shown in Schedule 3. It can be seen from Schedule 3 that the better (lowest rated ) remediation technologies include the plant remediation technology, microorganism remediation technology, landfill technology, MCD technology, thermal desorption technology and etc.

However, in consideration of the difficult degradation of PCB, neither the plant technology, or microorganism technology or landfill technology is efficient for removal of the PCB pollutants. Though the MCD technology is able to destroy the PCB pollutants, it lacks maturity and reliable operational parameters. In addition, the site can provide the space for incineration and the off-site incineration involves long-distance transport. To sum up, the thermal desorption technology is the best for the PCB in Zhejiang and it tallies with the proposed remediation technology.

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