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近代地震前异常发现Contemporary period -- discovery of abnormal pre-earthquake phenomena

发布时间:2011-09-28 08:49:55
 

近代史时期——震前异常现象的发现

4.1 Contemporary period -- discovery of abnormal pre-earthquake phenomena

中国有着世界上最丰富的震前异常现象的记载。最早的一次是474年(北魏)山西雁门郡地震时的地声现象:“雁门崎城有声如雷,自上西引十余声,声止地震” (《魏书》)。650年(唐朝)的地震前还发现了动物异常,“鼠聚朝廷、市衢中而鸣,地方屠裂”(《开元占经》)等。China boasts the world's richest record of abnormal pre-seismic phenomena. The earliest was the record on the seismic sound phenomena in the earthquake of Yanmen Prefecture, Shanxi, in 474 of the Northern Wei Dynasty: "Thunder-like sound rumbled on the rough city-wall of Yanmen, then 10-odd peals arose from the far west; when the sounds stopped, an earthquake began to strike" ( the Book of Wei ). Abnormal animal behaviours were also discovered before the 650 earthquake of the Tang Dynasty: " Mice gathered at the imperial court and squeaked in the markets and roads; cracks appeared on the ground and rooms" ( Treatise on Astrology in the Kaiyuan Reign ), and etc. 从全球资料看,震前异常现象的大量发现和记载,中国是在明末清初即15-17世纪以后,日本大约在18-19世纪,其他国家更晚且只有零星记载(Milne,1890; 唐锡仁,1978;力武常次,1978)。据美国地质调查所述,动物的震前异常可能是希腊人最早发现的,曾对公元前373年的一次地震记载过老鼠、黄鼠狼、蛇和蜈蚣在震前几天逃离住处。表2列了史料中的一些最早震例。

Globally, qualities of discovery and documentation of abnormal pre-seismic phenomena occurred first in 15-17th century during the late Ming and early Qing period, about 18-19th century in Japan. The documentation of other countries was much later and less ( Milne, 1890; Tang Xiren, 1978;りきたけ つねじ, 1978 ). According to the statement of the US geological investigation, the Greek people were believed to have been the first to have discovered the abnormal behaviours of animals before an earthquake, and they recorded that mice, weasels, snakes and centipedes had fled their nests several days before an earthquake in 373. Listed in Table 2 are some of the earliest seismic cases in historical documentation.

 

震前异常现象的发现具有极高的科学价值,是感性认识上的重大飞跃。迄今,中国更加广泛地累积了世界最丰富的震前异常资料,从中提炼出了许多重要的、可望用于预报的前兆。可惜,当时的人们并不意识到它的价值,也未做经验总结和推广。

The discovery of abnormal pre-seismic phenomena, a great leap in perceptual knowledge. So far, China had further accumulated the world's richest data on pre-seismic abnormal phenomena, extracted numerous important precursors usable for seismic forecast. Regrettably, people of that age were not aware of its value, nor did they generalize or popularize their experience.

 

表2            史料中最早的一些震前异常现象

Table 2  Earliest historical documentation of abnormal pre-seismic phenomena

 

类别

Category

 

中国史料记载

China's historical document

 

中国震例

Seismic cases

in China

 

国外震例

Foreign seismic cases

 

地声

Earthquake sound

 

 

·雁门崎城有声如雷,自上西引十余声,声止地震

"Thunder-like sound rumbled on the rough city-wall of Yanmen, then 10-odd peals arose from the far west; when the sounds stopped, an earthquake began to strike"

·秦州百姓闻州西北地下殷殷有声,俄而地震

The people of Qinzhou had heard rumbles coming from underground in the northwest, and soon after, an earthquake struck.

 

 

474,山西雁门

Yanmen, Shanxi ( year 474)

734,甘肃秦州

Qinzhou, Gansu

(734)

 

 

 

 

前震

Fore-shock

 

·五月云南地连震十三日,八月云南地大震

In May, the earth quaked for 13 consecutive days in Yunnan; in August a severe earthquake hit Yunnan. 

·戊时地震,先数日一次,是日震甚

The earthquake struck, before this it had stricken once several days, but it struck severely today

 

 

1512,云南

Yunnan

(1512)

1668,郯城

Tancheng

(1668)

 

 

 

 

地下水

Underground water

 

·未震之前一日,耳中闻河水汹汹之声

The day before the earthquake, I heard the roaring sounds of the river

·震前两年,干涸多年的岐山县潤德泉,突有小水出

Two years before the earthquake, water suddenly began to trickle from the Runde Spring of Qishan County which had dried up for many years.

 

1668,郯城

Tancheng

(1668)

1739,河南

Henan

(1668)

 

日本,1751,高田 

Gaotian, Japan (1751) 

 

地光

Earthquake light

 

 

·见碧光闪烁,如电者六七次,隐隐有声如雷鼓,巳而地震

Bluish green light flashed six to seven times like lightening bolts, and there indistinctive sounds like drumbeats; soon, an earthquake struck.

·子时天响有光,移时地震一刻

Rrumble and light appeared in the sky, and after a while an earthquake struck.

 

 

1509,湖北

Hubei

(1509)

1637,沅江

Yuanjiang

(1637)

 

日本,1703,元禄

Yuanlu, Japan

(1703)

     1847,信州

Xinzhou

(1847)

 

气象

Meteorology

 

·风雨骤作,地大震

A rainstorm struck suddenly, and the earth quaked violently.

·震前刮阵风,下阵雨和冰雹,停后地震

Gusts, showers and hail preceded came first, which was followed by an earthquake.

 

 

1523,定海

Dinghai

(1523)

1902,阿图什

Atushi

(1902)

 

 

 

阵风

Gust

 

·黑风骤起,有声如雷,倾之地大震

A dark wind struck suddenly, and there came a sound like thunder; soon afterwards, the earth shook violently.

·大风起,须臾地震

There suddenly appeared a strong wind, followed soon by an earthquake.

 

 

1219,陕西

Shaanxi

(1219)

1303,洪洞

Hongtong

(1303)

 

 

 

地气

Ground vapour

 

·忽于山下云雾起,有声渐大,地遂震动

Suddenly, clouds and mists rose from the foot of the mountain, and a sound was becoming louder and louder, and then the earth shook.

·云气弥天,忽大震如雷

The sky was shrouded in clouds and suddenly the earthquake struck like thunder.

 

1072,华县

Hua County

(1072)

1655,渭南

 

日本,1802,新泻

Xinxie, Japan

(1802)

      1855,江户

Jianghu

(1855)

 

地热

Terrestrial heat

 

·乡老有识者,谓霪雨后天大热,宜防地震

Some knowledgeable old folk said when great heat appeared after an excessive rain it was advisable to be on guard against an earthquake.

·地震前一日,大雨倾盆,天气极热

The day before the earthquake a torrential rain poured down and it was extremely hot.

 

1815,平陆

Pinglu

(1815)

1917,大关,

Daguan

(1917)

 

 

 

动物

Animals

 

·鼠聚朝廷、市衢中而鸣,地方屠裂”

Mice gathered at the Imperial Court, squeaked on the markets and street; fields and rooms showed cracks.

 

·震前,巢鸟惊散

Before the earthquake, birds in their nests scattered in panic.

 

·

 

650,陕西

Shaanxi

(650)

 

787,陕西长安

Chang'an, Shaanxi

(787)

 

 

希腊,公元前373

Greece

(373 BC)

意大利,1783

Italy

(1783)

委内瑞拉,1812

Venezuela

(1812)

 

智利,1822

Chile

(1822)

日本,1855,江户

Jianghu, Japan

(1855)

 近代地震前异常发现Contemporary period -- discovery of abnormal pre-earthquake phenomena

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